Degeneration of brain cells, amyloid plaque, and many other degenerative aspects that occur in the brain, are all symptoms of brain aging.  A major process that occurs in the brain is oxidation of fats (oxidation – loss of electrons), which inhibits respiratory processes (respiratory processes – oxygen used to burn fuel; to produce chemical energy in the body called ATP).  The primary source of fuel is carbohydrates.  Fats and protein are considered an additional alternative fuel source.  The major respiratory process in the brain is the citric acid cycle, where glucose is converted into ATP energy.  This occurs in the cells called the mitochondria. Respiratory processes and oxidation of fats are highly regulated by hormones, neurotransmitters, and other methods.  As we age, efficiency and function in the brain declines, which results in more oxidation of fats.  Increasing oxidation processes lead to less efficiency and function of respiratory processes.  The decline in respiratory processes and the increase of oxidation processes can be considered the root cause of brain aging and degeneration.

The citric acid cycle is responsible for converting glucose into ATP.  If the citric acid cycle is not working properly, this will lead to the accumulation of glucose.  The citric acid cycle functions efficiently, when respiration is optimized.  This means it needs oxygen.  From Harper's Biochemistry 25th Edition, "absence (anoxia) or partial deficiency (hypoxia) of O2 causes total or partial inhibition of the cycle (citric acid cycle - Page 183)".  Also, "which allows the respiratory chain to function at the maximum rate until the tissue has become virtually depleted of O2 (Page140)."  Thus the primary rate limiting factor in the respiratory chain, where glucose is converted to ATP, is availability of oxygen.  Until oxygen has become depleted, the citric acid cycle can function at “the maximum rate:.

The respiratory chain works less efficiently, when fatty acid oxidation levels are increasing.  From Harper's Biochemistry, "fatty acids inhibit glycolysis (the conversion of glucose into ATP) at several steps and stimulate gluconeogenesis (Page 617)."  Glucose utilization for conversion into ATP is inhibited by fatty acids.  Thus respiratory processes work less efficiently when fatty acid oxidation levels are increasing.  Reducing triglycerides and fats in the bloodstream will improve insulin sensitivity (insulin is a hormone that helps proper utilization of glucose), which will improve the respiratory chain.  Furthermore, the process of gluconeogenesis is mentioned.  Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as fat and protein.  This means fatty acids are stimulating the production of additional glucose through the process of gluconeogensis, which will result in further decreasing efficiency and function of the respiratory chain.

A primary cause of brain degeneration is the decline of respiratory processes.  Increasing respiratory processes would increase oxygen in the brain, improve neuronal glucose metabolism, improve general neuronal metabolism, improve antioxidant defenses, and generally increase efficiency and functioning of the brain.  Perhaps improving the health of the brain can increase functioning enough to slow down the degeneration, breakdown, and death of brain cells.    

Dr. Bob was a MD internal medicine, orthomolecular doctor, MD psychiatrist, chiropractor, and healer 65 years.  He was a diabetic who lived to 108 years with only 1 side effect 2 years before he passed away.  Dr. Bob practiced a system of medicine called orthomolecular medicine.  It is a system of medicine practiced by medical MD’s throughout the world, who use mainly natural substances that are non-toxic and safe in wide range of doses.  It uses mainly herbs and minerals/vitamins.

Dr. Bob described that the brain is mostly fat - oxidation processes are highly reactive to fat. Oxidation processes can be highly damaging to the brain.  He explained a method to help counteract the oxidation occurring in the brain. Dr. Bob advised to increase cell respiration and O2 utilization, in order to restore proper O2 exchange."  This can lead to lower levels of oxidative stress in the brain.

Dr. Bob's ideas to restore proper 02 exchange in brain cells:

Warning - The following information offers compounds that Dr. Bob found worked synergistically.  The doses and compounds, which can work best for you, should be discussed between you and a nutritional specialist or doctor.  This article is not suggesting you take any or all of these substances.  The idea is to describe compounds that are synergistic and can increase O2 utilization in the brain.  These substances tend to be highly synergistic – more is usually not better.  Two or more of these compounds used together can reduce amounts used by factors of 5, 10, 20 or more.

As an illustration – a genie granted one wish to a man, but said whatever you wish, your worst enemy Frank, will get twice as much.  The man wished for the most beautiful, sexual woman any man could handle.  Moral of the story - more is not always better.

Note – if you would like the doses and amounts for Dr. Bob’s protocol for 02 exchange you can email the web site and request it.

1.      An example of high synergy between two compounds - hydergine and piracetam both increase the energy of the brain, which means they help everything else work better.  From Brain Longevity by Dharma Singh Khalsa, MD, “In addition, there are pharmaceutical drugs that increase the effectiveness of piracetam.  These drugs, which also boost the cholingeric system, include Hydergine."  Also, "It appears Hydergine to be most effective when combined with administration of piracetam."  Dr. Bob found Hydergine and piracetam to potentiate each other 2-5 times each.  For example, sometimes a 20 mg dose a day of Hydergine - might need to be reduced to 2 and 1/2 mg a day when combined with an appropriate dose of piracetam.  Also, if you include antioxidants and other ingredients mentioned in this article, the effects should be greater.  This means you need to find an orthomolecular doctor or nutritional specialist familiar with these ingredients, who can help you start at appropriate low doses and build everything up properly.

Dr. Bob’s ideas for increasing O2 exchange:

1.      Consider using antioxidants, which are aerobic and increase oxygen and cell respiration.  Vitamin E, melatonin, vitamin C, and other antioxidants are vital in neutralizing oxidation processes.

2.      Consider using hydergine, an extract of a fungus called ergot.  Hydergine increases cerebral blood flow, is an effective antioxidant, and stimulates neuronal metabolism.  Hydergine is a prescription drug.

3.      Consider using piracetam - piracetam helps the brain by enhancing general neuronal metabolism.  It does this by increasing the amount of the energy-producing substance called ATP, which is found in all neurons.  Another beneficial effect of piracetam is that it improves neuronal glucose metabolism.  This can be very helpful to people enduring chronic stress (such as in Parkinson’s), because the stress hormone cortisol interferes with glucose metabolism (Dharma Singh Khalsa, MD, “Brain Longevity”).  Norepinephrine and epinephrine are part of the cortisol system and part of the catecholamine system, along with dopamine.  Dr. Bob explained that piracetam can benefit the catecholamine system and the brain.  “Piracetam is a very safe drug, with no know serious side effects.  No toxic symptoms from piracetam have ever been reported.”  Piracetam is a prescription drug. Note - One idea of current modern medical thinking involving Parkinson’s treatment is to use anti-chollergenic drugs. Piracetam can stimulate the chollergenic system.  Dr. Bob explained that anti-chollergenic methods have not been successful or proven to be right in Parkinson’s.

4.      Consider the supplement ginseng with the extract of G115.  G115 extract has been shown in research to improve oxygen utilization.

5.      Consider using vinpocetine – can help protect cell walls, can help regenerate nerves, can help improve blood flow, and other important functions.

6.      Consider using acetyl-L-carnitine - can help protect cell walls, can help regenerate nerves, can help improve blood flow, and other important functions.  It can work in synergy with vinpocetine.

7.      Consider using deprenyl - Dr. Bob had to carefully monitor the dose for deprenyl, to determine the potential effects the other ingredients might be having on deprenyl and vice versa.  Deprenyl is a prescription drug.

8.      Consider using TMG – can help blood penetration between cell walls.

9.      Consider using CDP – can help improve mental function.

10. Consider using L-phenylalanine – can help improve brain function short term.

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Note – You can email the web site for information on Dr. Bob’s frequency and dosage amounts for his O2 exchange protocol.

To summarize, science is aware of the many checks and balances of the oxidative and respiratory processes in the body.  The events of increasing oxidation in the brain, as we age, eventually change the respiratory-oxidative balances. A decline in respiratory processes leads to an increasing of oxidation processes.  This results in decline of production of ATP, the energy currency of the body, and many other degenerative conditions. A method to decrease oxidation is to increase respiratory processes.  Antioxidants and other substances that can increase respiratory processes should help decrease stress on the brain. The synergy of the ingredients described can be powerful and if not done properly can lead to side effects.  The ideas in this article need a professional to help properly administer the doses at the start and throughout.  In no way should anyone attempt these ideas without the help of their health care specialist.

Increasing brain function, by improving blood circulation in the brain, will increase respiratory processes and decrease fatty acid oxidation.  The information regarding improving circulation of the brain is discussed in the anti-brain aging section of this web site in the article called, “Improving Circulation of the Brain – Reducing Oxidation of Fats.”

Note – you and your doctor need to constantly monitor your condition.  Increasing health is one guidepost that your supplements and medications may be decreasing the stress of brain aging.  Negative signs and symptoms are a guidepost to perhaps slow down or discontinue specific supplements and medications.

Note – In order for these nutritional ideas to be successful, you must use supplements of the highest quality. Dr. Bob often said, “almost all supplement companies produce poor quality.”  You can consider the product page of this web site. Almost all the products met Dr. Bob’s approval.  Since he passed away we have attempted to keep the same high standards. 


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The Food and Drug Administration has not evaluated any of the statements contained on this web site. The information contained in this article is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Remember each person's body is different and will react differently to various herbal, vitamin and mineral supplements. Therefore, any supplementation must be administered on an individual basis. Use the information found on this web site as precisely that: Information. You and your doctor must make any final decisions. This information is not meant to replace any doctor and patient consultation. This information should in no way replace your personal physician's advice.




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